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Download RT PCR Report UAE: How to Scan and Share Your QR Code for COVID-19 Status Verification

We report ten species of mosquitoes from the UAE, with highest species diversity in the natural site, a protected wadi near the eastern coast. The predominant mosquito was Culex perexiguus, and was associated with peri-urban habitats. The site with lowest mosquito species diversity but relatively high species richness was the peri-urban site of Al Ain Zoo, where we identified Bagaza virus and Barkedji virus, two flaviviruses, in pools of Cx. perexiguus.

There is some evidence of autochtonous transmission of arboviruses in the UAE and surrounding area. West Nile virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) was isolated for the first time in the UAE from a dromedary camel in 2016 [16]. In a recent study in Oman, we identified Sindbis virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) and Barkedji virus (BJV) (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) in a local Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say population (N. Nowotny, unpublished data). Whether BJV infects vertebrate hosts has yet to been determined [17]. More is known about the mosquito-borne viruses present in neighboring countries of the Arabian Peninsula, most notably the introduction of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (Phenuiviridae, Phlebovirus) in Saudi Arabia and Yemen in 2000 [18, 19]. The Rift Valley fever outbreak resulted in 884 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia with 124 deaths, and 1087 cases with 121 deaths in Yemen [20]. Dengue virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) is also present in these two countries, and has caused recent outbreaks [21,22,23,24]. Autochthonous cases of chikungunya virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) have also been reported from the Arabian Peninsula, again from neighboring Saudi Arabia [25] and Yemen [21], but not yet from the UAE. Zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) cases have not yet been reported from the Middle East [22]; however, Zika virus is present in the Maldives and other vacation destinations of those living in the UAE [26]. Many of these arboviruses may cause mild and/or subclinical symptoms in infected human patients, and to our knowledge, no serological or virological surveys of humans have been performed in the UAE.

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Culex perexiguus was the predominant species in AAZ, and the second most frequently collect species at RK. It is a member of the Univitattus complex, and both Cx. (Cux.) univitattus Theobald and Cx. perexiguus are present on the Arabian Peninsula [31]. Although we did not inspect male terminalia to differentiate Cx. univitattus from Cx. perexiguus, the molecular bar-coding performed here and the distribution in the eastern Arabian Peninsula suggest that we captured Cx. perexiguus [31, 33, 59]. Based on the presence of WNV nucleic acid in mosquito pools and ornithophilic host preference, it has been suggested that the Univitattus complex, likely Cx. univitattus (s.s.), is an important enzootic vector of WNV in Portugal and Spain [59,60,61,62,63] as well as in Egypt and southwest Asia [31, 64]. It is known to be a competent vector of RVFV [56]. Herein we report BAGV and BJV nucleic acids were detected in pools of Cx. perexiguus. BJV has been previously detected in pools of Cx. perexiguus in Israel; however, vertebrate hosts of BJV have not been identified [17].

We performed a survey of the mosquito population at three sites in the UAE. We recorded the presence of 10 species, of which all were previously recorded in the Arabian Peninsula and five represent first confirmed reports from the UAE. We detected two viruses in pools of Cx. perexiguus at a peri-urban trap site in eastern UAE, one of which, BAGV, has been associated with avian mortality in Europe. As expected, the site of highest mosquito biodiversity was the protected natural site in WW, and biodiversity was lower in the human-made site in Al Ain where the viruses were identified. Anthropogenic landscaping may have favored the predominance of Cx. perexiguus at AAZ and RK, and the presence of the arboviruses at AAZ may be related to an abundance of susceptible hosts. The mosquito distribution in peri-urban sites was correlated with anthropogenic autecological drivers that favored certain mosquito species.

The first COVID-19 case in the UAE was detected on January 29, 2020. By December 22, 2020, 195,878 COVID-19 cases and 642 deaths due to COVID-19 had been reported in the UAE [2]. In addition to contact tracing and testing, public health measures including mass testing of random samples from highly populated residential areas, establishing several drive-through testing stations across the country, mandating and imposing the use of masks and physical distancing in public places, border closures starting on March 19, 2020, and public lockdown and stay at home orders starting on March 23, 2020 were implemented. Relative to the total population, the UAE is one of the top 10 countries in terms of the daily number of tested individuals for COVID-19 [2]. By December 22, 2020, 1,970,552 per one million population COVID-19 RT-PCR tests had been performed in the country [2]. This mass screening has dramatically helped identify more COVID-19 cases. The partial reopening of malls and other public places started on April 23, 2020. The country also adopted gradual reopening of public places and return to work and schools. The implemented strategy for containing the pandemic was successfully able to maintain a low positivity rate, reaching 0.9% by December 21, 2020 [11].

We reviewed the first cohort of 1,249 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases that were passively or actively identified and reported to health authorities in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, up to April 8, 2020. In the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the first COVID-19 PCR-confirmed case was reported on February 28, 2020. Information on the reported symptoms was recorded. Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics (age, sex, nationality, and place of work), chronic comorbidities (e.g., DM, hypertension, anemia, and respiratory diseases), and travel history in the past month were also collected. Only RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases with information on their symptomatic state at the time of the first PCR test during the specified study period were considered eligible and analyzed.

A total of 1,249 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases were investigated and reported to the health authorities between February 28 and April 8, 2020. There were missing data on the symptomatic state and other key characteristics in 458 cases. These cases were excluded from the analysis. Among the remaining 791 cases, 43.5% were asymptomatic and 56.5% were symptomatic (Fig 1).

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The mean age of the RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases was 35.6 12.7 years. Most (79.2%) of the cases were males, 82.2% were Non-Emirati, 61.7% were working in public places, 23.6% had traveled abroad in the past month, and 13.1% reported having at least one chronic comorbidity. There were 46 (5.8%) cases with DM, 45 (5.7%) with hypertension, 14 (1.8%) with asthma, nine (1.1%) with cancer, five (0.6%) with kidney diseases, five (0.6%) with thyroid diseases, one with anemia, and one with allergy.

In our study, although the symptomatic state was associated with a delay in testing negative in the subsequent testing rounds compared with asymptomatic cases, a substantial proportion of asymptomatic cases also tested positive. In the second RT-PCR testing round, which was performed an average of 2.7 days after the first test, almost three-quarters (73.0%) of the asymptomatic COVID-19 cases tested positive, while over one-third (35.1%) tested positive an average of 8.3 days after the first test. This finding is of paramount public health significance and has implications related to early screening, detection, and timing of quarantine of asymptomatic COVID-19 cases. Asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with COVID-19 were reported to have a similar viral load after a median follow-up of 24 days from diagnosis [5]. The early screening and detection of silent transmitters in the community along with evidence-based quarantine timing would positively contribute to controlling the role of silent transmitters during the current and future pandemic waves.

Data were extracted from the Infectious Diseases Notification Surveillance System of the Department of Health. The descriptive analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences v26 and reported according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement.

The significant number of asymptomatic patients was identified by active case finding and contact tracing from the early period of the epidemic. A small percentage of severe, critical cases, and death reported in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi which may have been due to public health measures implemented for early detection, contact tracing, and treatment.

This consensus report by the Emirates Oncology Task Force discusses practical challenges and recommendations for those cancer patients returning to the UAE from treatment abroad, although it is also applicable to other patients from different parts of the world seeking medical tourism. The aim of this report is to provide recommendations and guidance for treating oncologists to manage these unique clinical challenges.

Optimal cancer care begins with an accurate diagnosis. Patients returning from cancer care abroad will have previously undergone pathological valuation. Their prescribed oncology treatment will be based on the histologic classification, pathologic stage and possibly genomic analysis of the tumour. For these patients, it may be useful to review the pathology report in order to assess the appropriateness of the prescribed treatment regimen. Most cancer centres will discharge patients with a copy of their medical records and it is a matter of requesting documentation and, if feasible, tissue blocks or slides. At a minimum, the pathology report should be reviewed by an in-house pathologist. The accuracy of the diagnosis can often be assessed by correlating the clinical findings, histologic description, and relevance of the immunohistochemical workup and interpretation. Ideally, the diagnosis should be confirmed by histologic examination of the tumour, achieved by review of the submitted slides or recuts of the tissue blocks. The tissue blocks can be useful later for additional work-up for prognostic or predictive markers, genomic studies, or comparison with metastasis. If the slides or tissue blocks are not available, the pathologist can communicate with the referring institution and request digital images of the tumour. Final confirmation of the diagnosis should be rendered in correlation with the clinical and surgical history, best accomplished by comprehensive review in an MDT setting.


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